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Collin Matjila gave
me hand-written note to change tender – Dames
Koeberg steam generators, which were up for replacement, Dames said tender
committee chairperson Collin Matjila gave him a hand-written note from the
meeting to change the tender in 2011.
Matjila, a board
member when Dames was CEO, became acting CEO after Dames stepped down in 2014.
He held the role from April to October 2014.
Eberhard writes in his Eskom Inquiry reference book:
“In 2010, the Eskom
board approved the business case for extending Koeberg’s lifespan. The plant
life extension plan includes the once-off replacement of Koeberg’s six steam
consisting of three parts, was issued the same year. At the start of 2011, the
Eskom board signed off on the Eskom Executive Procurement Committee’s (EXCOPS)
recommendation that Westinghouse (US) should be awarded the bulk of the tender
– with a smaller part apportioned to Areva (France).
“Areva then signed
letters of intent with Eskom during President Zuma’s visit to France in March
2011. The next month, newly appointed Minister Malusi Gigaba vetoed the board’s
earlier decision to award Westinghouse the bulk of the tender. This was one of
Minister Gigaba’s first interventions into Eskom procurement. It was followed by – and has been linked to –
Minister Gigaba’s purge of the Eskom board just three months later.
“In 2012, the tender
bidding process was reopened. The EXCOPS again undertook a technical evaluation
of bids, reaching a similar conclusion to that of the 2011 tender process.
However, Board Tender Committee (BTC) chairman, Collin Matjila, curiously
blocked EXCOPS from presenting their recommendations to the board – effectively
stalling the official process.
initiated a parallel process – contracting Swiss firm AF Consult to undertake a
bid evaluation review. Following the recommendations of the AF Consult report,
Westinghouse and Areva were asked to resubmit bids in July 2013. The board
rejected the EXCOPS recommendations on this bid too and instead invited the two
companies into parallel negotiations.
“In December 2013,
once negotiations were already underway, members of the BTC were flown to
France for a ‘nuclear training’ trip funded by Électricité de France (EDF) – which
had a stake in Areva at the time and the same majority shareholder.
“In April 2014,
Collin Matjila became Acting CEO of Eskom. Though the EXCOPS, BTC, and board
had not yet reached agreement on the matter, Matjila and new BTC chair, Neo
Lasela, took a decision in favour of Areva, signed by Matshela Koko, to
Minister Lynne Brown. Areva was awarded the tender on 12 August, 2014.
challenged the decision through the courts. Initially it succeeded, but
ultimately, the Constitutional Court ruled in Eskom/Areva’s favour on (incidental) procedural grounds.
“The cost of this
protracted process goes beyond the higher price tag of the Areva bid. Given
lead times for the manufacture of the generators, the replacement will no
longer be possible in the scheduled window, raising concerns around reliability
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polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is used to simultaneously detect a specific
DNA sequence in a sample and determine the actual copy number of this sequence
relative to a standard.
In real-time PCR, the DNA copy number can be
established after each cycle of amplification.
This is useful for diagnostic
tests where the cycle number at which the signal of the reaction crosses a
threshold (threshold cycle) has been correlated with clinical data (eg,
growth of an organism in culture, or the presence of marker genes from
metastatic cancer cells in a sentinel lymph node).
And by beginning with a
reverse transcription step, qPCR can be used to quantify numbers of messenger
RNAs as well. There are many applications for qPCR in both research and diagnostics.
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